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Statistics
Follow the Money

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Child Abuse and Neglect Cost Nation over $100 Billion per year; Most Federal Child Welfare Funds Unavailable for Prevention Services and Supports

WASHINGTON, DC – An economic impact analysis released today estimates the costs of child abuse and neglect to society were nearly $104 billion last year, and a companion report highlights the unavailability of federal child welfare funding for programs and services known to be effective at reducing incidences of child abuse and neglect.

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WASHINGTON, DC – An economic impact analysis released today estimates the costs of child abuse and neglect to society were nearly $104 billion last year, and a companion report highlights the unavailability of federal child welfare funding for programs and services known to be effective at reducing incidences of child abuse and neglect.

Total Estimated Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States, by Prevent Child Abuse America (PCAA) and Time for Reform: Investing in Prevention, Keeping Children Safe At Home, by Kids Are Waiting (KAW), a project of The Pew Charitable Trusts, show that while the economic costs associated with child abuse and neglect rose to a staggering $103.8 billion in 2007,  merely ten percent of federal money dedicated for child welfare, approximately $741.9 million, can currently be used to prevent child abuse and neglect from occurring by strengthening families.

The PCAA report documents pervasive and long-lasting effects of child abuse on children, their families, and society as a whole.  The $103.8 billion cost of child abuse and neglect includes more than $33 billion in direct costs for foster care services, hospitalization, mental health treatment, and law enforcement.  Indirect costs of over $70 billion include loss of productivity, as well as expenditures related to chronic health problems, special education, and the criminal justice system.

“Prevention of child abuse and neglect makes sense – and makes ‘cents,’ too,” said PCAA President & CEO Jim Hmurovich.  “The data in these reports show that a greater focus on prevention will decrease both the short and long-term costs to society.  But it is impossible to calculate the pain, suffering, and reduced quality of life that victims of violence against children experience throughout their lifetime.”

The KAW report finds that the current federal child welfare financing structure does not adequately support services and supports that could help keep more children safely with their families. The report shows that the majority of dedicated federal funding for child welfare is currently reserved for placing and maintaining children in foster care and cannot be used for prevention or reunification services or supports.

States may access dollars under Title IV-E, the principal source of federal child welfare funding, only after children have been removed from their home and enter foster care. Of the $7.2 billion federal funds dedicated for child welfare in 2007, approximately 90 percent supported children in foster care placements ($4.5 billion) and children adopted from foster care ($2.0 billion). States can use about 10 percent of federal dedicated child welfare funds flexibly for family services and supports, including prevention or reunification services.

The report recommends specific policy options to keep children safe and strengthen families:

• Ensure a sufficient, flexible and reliable federal resource to help support the continuum of services needed by at-risk children and families.
• Reward states for safely reducing the number of children in foster care and achieving all forms of permanence.
• Make all abused and neglected children eligible for federal foster care support.
 
The KAW report also shows that most children (54%) who leave foster care reunite with their families, after having stayed in foster care for an average of six months. In fact, safely reunifying foster children with their parents is a primary goal of the child welfare system.  States vary widely in the percentage of children rejoining their families upon leaving foster care, from 30 and 33 percent in DC and Virginia respectively to 76 percent in Idaho. (Top 15 and bottom 15 state reunification rates listed in the table below.)

States with the highest and lowest rates of children reunified with their families after foster care in 2005


Top 15 highest reunification rates
Rank State/District N %
1 Idaho  1,067 76%
2 Nebraska 2,507 73%
3 Iowa  3,425 72%
4 New Mexico 1,417 69%
5 Minnesota 4,903 67%
6 Delaware 448 66%
7 New Jersey 4,992 66%
8 Wyoming  663 66%
9 Wisconsin 3,759 65%
10 Indiana  3,910 63%
11 Rhode Island 856 63%
12 Nevada  1,989 63%
13 Oregon  3,150 63%
14 Connecticut 1,180 62%
15 Washington 3,770 62%

Bottom 15 lowest reunification rates
Rank State/District N %
37 Kentucky 1,727 46%
38 Montana  532 46%
39 Ohio  5,517 45%
40 South Carolina 1,381 45%
41 Alabama  1,461 45%
42 Arkansas 1,466 43%
43 North Carolina 2,313 42%
44 Illinois 2,517 41%
45 New Hampshire 219 40%
46 Maine  386 39%
47 Utah  680 34%
48 Texas  4,146 34%
49 Maryland 908 34%
50 Virginia 1,120 33%
51 DC  310 30%
 
Note: Percentages represent the number of children reunified of total exits from foster care in 2005. Source: AFCARS 2005

Federal child welfare financing reform could help prevent child abuse and neglect in the first place and reduce the current reliance on foster care by lessening the need for some children to enter the foster care system and helping others safely reunify with their families more quickly. 

The Kids Are Waiting report highlights an array of services that have been shown to be effective at:
1. Decreasing the incidence of abuse and neglect. The Nurse-Family Partnership program, active in 20 states, resulted in a 48 percent lower level of abuse and neglect for children whose families received home visitation services compared with the control group. An evaluation of the Healthy Families New Jersey program showed that 99 percent of the children served were free from abuse and neglect.
2. Reducing short and long term trauma to children. In Tennessee, Renewal House, a residential program for mothers who have an addiction and their children, demonstrated that fewer infants born to mothers in the program require neonatal intensive care.
3. Lessening the need to remove children from their families.  Due to increased investment in prevention services, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was able to maintain more than 65 percent of children at home for the entire time they were served by the child welfare system. 
4. Lowering the costs of care per child.  In Wisconsin, wraparound Milwaukee decreased the number of children in foster care placement by sixty percent and reduced the cost of care from $5,000 to less than $3,300.

“Taking children away from their families is a traumatic experience that will stay with them forever,” said Marci McCoy-Roth, program officer with The Pew Charitable Trusts.  “Foster care should not be the only option available to keep children safe and help families in crisis. States and the federal government must work in partnership to prevent child abuse and neglect and ensure that all children have safe families. The importance of family is a fundamental American value. How much longer must our children wait for the permanent families they deserve?”

ABOUT PREVENT CHILD ABUSE AMERICA: Prevent Child Abuse America is a national nonprofit that advocates for public policies to diminish or eliminate risk factors for child abuse and neglect, while promoting protective factors.  For more information visit www.preventchildabu se.org  

ABOUT THE KIDS ARE WAITING CAMPAIGN: Kids Are Waiting: Fix Foster Care Now, a project of The Pew Charitable Trusts, is a national, nonpartisan campaign dedicated to ensuring that all children in foster care have the safe, permanent families they deserve through reform of the federal financing structure that governs our nation's foster care program. For more information visit:http:// www.kidsarewaiting.org 

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FALSE ALLEGATIONS: WHAT THE DATA REALLY SHOW
National Coalition for Child Protection Reform / 53 Skyhill Road (Suite 202) / Alexandria, Va., 22314 / info@nccpr.org / www.nccpr.org

As the previous paper in this series noted, of the roughly 2.7 million reports alleging child abuse every year, about two-thirds typically are false.

But to a child saver, there is virtually no such thing as a false allegation of child abuse. False reports are labeled "unfounded" or "unsubstantiated" but child savers insist that's not the same thing as false. They offer several reasons why, in all likelihood, any parent accused of child abuse must be guilty. Such arguments are a classic example of a half-truth. They are, quite literally, half of the truth.

Of course, America's stumbling, bumbling child-saving bureaucracy is going to mislabel some real cases of abuse -- some guilty families will be let off the hook after an investigation. But that same bureaucracy repeatedly labels innocent families guilty.

This question was examined by a major federal study, commonly known as the second National Incidence Study or NIS2. This study second-guessed child protective workers, re-checking records to see if they had reached the right conclusion. The researchers found that protective workers were at least twice as likely and perhaps as much as six times more likely to wrongly label an innocent family guilty as they were to wrongly label a guilty family innocent.[1] Thus, not only are about  two-thirds of all allegations false, chances are that figure is an underestimate.

Yet child savers insist that false reports are not really false. These are their reasons, and why those arguments don't wash:

·  The case was labeled unfounded because the worker couldn't "prove" guilt. In fact, workers don't have to prove guilt. There is no trial, no judge, no jury. A worker can label a parent guilty and place his or her name in a state central register based entirely on her own suspicions.

The real problem is the reverse: innocent people whose cases have been wrongly "substantiated." In half the states, workers need only believe it is slightly more likely than not that maltreatment occurred to declare the case “substantiated.”[2] In the other half, the standard is even lower: Typically, in these states, a worker can label a case "substantiated" if she thinks she has "some credible evidence" of maltreatment, even if there is more evidence of innocence. In a case brought by a member of the NCCPR Board of Directors, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled in 1994 that "the 'some credible evidence' standard results in many individuals being placed [in the Central Register] who do not belong there."[3] It is grossly misleading for child savers to label such cases as "confirmed" or "substantiated."

·  The parents are guilty but the law doesn't define what they did as child abuse. State laws are so broad that virtually anything a parent does or does not do can be labeled abuse or neglect, if a worker sees fit. Indeed, as the previous paper explains, the largest single category of "substantiated" maltreatment is "neglect," a category filled with cases in which parents have been accused of maltreatment solely because they are poor.

·  The investigator had so many cases that she couldn't investigate long enough to uncover abuse or she was not trained well enough to detect it. The same worker may miss evidence showing that a parent is innocent for the same reasons.

·  The parents are guilty but the system has no help to offer, so the case was labeled unfounded. On the other hand, often the system will provide help for any kind of family problem only if the family is accused of child abuse. Therefore, workers sometimes deliberately mislabel innocent parents guilty in order to get them help with other problems.

In addition, most states lump together cases in which there has been actual maltreatment with cases where the worker thinks something just might happen in the future. These so-called "at risk" cases may make up half or more of the 40 percent of all allegations that are "substantiated."[4] And finally, the enormous pressure on workers has to be considered. If they label a case false and harm comes to a child, they face loss of their jobs, the enmity of the press and the public, and perhaps even criminal charges. If they wrongly label parents guilty, even if that leads to needless foster care placement and all the harm that can cause for a child, the worker suffers no penalty. So workers practice "defensive social work" and wrongly accuse innocent parents.

For all of these reasons it is clear that of the 2.7 million reports alleging child abuse every year, a minimum of about two-thirds are false -- not "unfounded," not "unsubstantiated" -- just plain false.

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1. Study Findings: Study of National Incidence and Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect: 1988 (Washington: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1988), Chapter 6, Page 5. Back to Text.

2. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. Child Maltreatment 2001 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001). See Appendix D, also available online.

3. Valmonte v. Bane, 18 F.3d 992 (2nd Cir. 1994). Back to Text.

4. For example, unlike most states, Kansas does not lump these categories together. Therefore, in Kansas, only 11 percent of all reports are substantiated. (Office of the Legislative Post Auditor, Performance Audit Report, 1990, p.6). Back to Text.

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Instructions for Completion of Form CWS-101

Annual Budget Request for Title IV-B Funds

  1. Computation of Federal Grant Award:

    Each State should base its request on its share of the $141 million allotment until it has been certified as meeting the criteria establishing its eligibility to receive its share of funds beyond the $141 million allotment.

    1. This is the total the State expects to spend during the year based upon its current eligibility.

    2. This figure is 75% of the amount in A, but is limited by the State's allotment as specified in the appropriate Action Transmittal.

  1. Funds will be awarded to each State based on the amount requested for each quarter. No quarterly submissions are required except to amend the original request.

  2. The signatures of both the Administrator of the Single State Agency and the Director of the State Single Organizational Unit are required.

    Note: This budget request is subject to the A-95 approval process.

Attachments:

Attachment II: State Grant Table showing tentative FY 1981 apportionment of Federal Child Welfare Services State Grant Funds
Attachment III Notes on possible direct payments to Indian tribal organizations

Independent Living Initiative
FY 1990 Allotments

Name of State

Allotment

Alabama

$ 741,779

Alaska

9,309

Arizona

248,403

Arkansas

193,529

California

8,915,552

Colorado

589,895

Connecticut

538,941

Delaware

145,024

Dist. of Col.

779,995

Florida

705,033

Georgia

784,894

Hawaii

12,739

Idaho

76,432

Illinois

2,012,209

Indiana

728,550

Iowa

321,405

Kansas

512,484

Kentucky

565,398

Louisiana

970,094

Maine

404,206

Maryland

884,353

Massachusetts

454,180

Michigan

2,979,853

Minnesota

815,761

Mississippi

367,460

Missouri

925,019

Montana

174,421

Nebraska

311,116

Nevada

109,748

New Hampshire

228,805

New Jersey

1,641,320

New Mexico

147,964

New York

8,275,682

North Carolina

746,678

North Dakota

137,185

Ohio

2,043,566

Oklahoma

442,911

Oregon

664,857

Pennsylvania

3,313,017

Rhode Island

224,885

South Carolina

414,005

South Dakota

138,165

Tennessee

555,599

Texas

1,315,504

Utah

144,534

Vermont

211,167

Virginia

972,543

Washington

589,405

West Virginia

372,359

Wisconsin

1,110,218

Wyoming

31,847

ATTACHMENTS:

Attachment A:   Section 477 of the Social Security Act
Attachment C:   HDS Regional Administrators

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Child Maltreatment Statistics from the Agency
2005  ~

Child Maltreatment 2005 : Summary of Key Findings
From:  Child Welfare Information Gateway:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/canstats.cfm
Numbers and Trends

Author(s):  Child Welfare Information Gateway

Year Published:  2007

This factsheet presents excerpts from Child Maltreatment 2005, a report based on data submissions by State child protective services (CPS) agencies for Federal fiscal year (FFY) 2005. The full Child Maltreatment 2005 report is available on the Children's Bureau website: www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm05/index.htm:

Table of Contents
Child Maltreatment 2005

Child Maltreatment 2005
(
PDF - 4,364 KB)

Inside Cover

Letter from the Associate Commissioner

Acknowledgements

Summary

Chapter 1:     Introduction

Background of NCANDS
Annual Data Collection Process
Structure of the Report

Chapter 2:     Reports

Screening of Referrals
Report Sources
Investigation or Assessment Results
Report Dispositions by Report Source
Response Time from Report to Investigation
CPS Workforce and Workload
Tables and Notes
Chapter Two: Figures and Tables

Chapter 3:     Children

Children Who Were Subjects of an Investigation
Child Victims
First-Time Victims
Types of Maltreatment
Sex and Age of Victims
Race and Ethnicity of Victims
Living Arrangement of Victims
Reported Disability of Victims
Recurrence
Perpetrators of Maltreatment
Maltreatment in Foster Care
Tables and Notes
Chapter Three: Figures and Tables

Chapter 4:     Fatalities

Number of Child Fatalities
Age and Sex of Child Fatalities
Race and Ethnicity of Child Fatalities
Perpetrator Relationships of Child Fatalities
Maltreatment Types of Child Fatalities
Prior CPS Contact of Child Fatalities
Tables and Notes
Chapter Four: Figures and Tables

Chapter 5:     Perpetrators

Characteristics of Perpetrators
Tables and Notes
Chapter Five: Figures and Tables

Chapter 6:     Services

Preventive Services
Postinvestigation Services
Tables and Notes
Chapter Six: Tables

Chapter 7:     Additional Research Related to Child Maltreatment

Reports on Key Indicators, Outcomes, and National Statistics
Studies of the Characteristics of Children in the Child Welfare System
Capacity-Building Initiatives
Suggestions For Future Research

Appendix A:     Required CAPTA Data Items

Appendix A: Table

Appendix B:     Glossary

Appendix C:     Data Submissions and Data Elements

Appendix C: Tables

Appendix D:     State Commentary

Limited print copies are available from Child Welfare Information Gateway.

How many children were reported and investigated for abuse and neglect?

During Federal fiscal year (FFY) 2005, an estimated 3.3 million referrals, involving the alleged maltreatment of approximately 6.0 million children, were made to CPS agencies. The increase of approximately 73,000 children who received an investigation during FFY 2005, compared to FFY 2004, is largely due to the inclusion of data from Alaska and Puerto Rico for FFY 2005. An estimated 3.6 million children in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico received investigations by CPS agencies.

Who reported child maltreatment?

For FFY 2005, more than one-half of all reports (55.8%) of alleged child abuse or neglect were made by professionals. They were primarily made by educators, police and lawyers, and social services staff. The remaining reports were made by nonprofessionals, including friends, neighbors, and relatives.

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Who were the child victims?

During FFY 2005, an estimated 899,000 children in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico were determined to be victims of abuse or neglect. The increase of approximately 20,000 victims in FFY 2005, compared to FFY 2004, is largely due to the inclusion of data from Alaska and Puerto Rico for FFY 2005. Among the children confirmed as victims by CPS agencies in FFY 2005:

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What were the most common types of maltreatment?

As in prior years, neglect was the most common form of child maltreatment. CPS investigations determined the following:

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How many children died from abuse or neglect?

Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. Yet, each year children die from abuse and neglect. During FFY 2005:

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Who is responsible for the abuse and neglect?

In FFY 2005, more than three-quarters of perpetrators of child maltreatment (79.4%) were parents, and another 6.8 percent were other relatives of the victim. Unrelated caregivers (foster parents, residential facility staff, child daycare providers, and legal guardians) accounted for less than 10.1 percent of perpetrators. Women comprised a larger percentage of all perpetrators than men, 57.8 percent compared to 42.2 percent. More than three-fourths of all perpetrators were younger than age 40.

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Who received services?

During an investigation, CPS agencies provide services to children and their families, both in the home and in foster care.

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The statistics in the Child Maltreatment reports are based on data submitted to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS). NCANDS is a voluntary reporting system that was developed by the Children's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to collect and analyze annual statistics on child maltreatment from State CPS agencies.

From:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/prevalence/

Prevalence

National and State statistics on the prevalence of different types of maltreatment, abuse and neglect in out-of-home care, and recurrence.

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Child Maltreatment 1995: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald Associates

Availability:

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Year Published:

1997 - 102 pages

 

*       This report summarizes data submitted by the states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 1995. The data provide a profile of child abuse and neglect cases in the United States. More than 1 million children were victims of child abuse or neglect during 1995. Almost all of the abuse was perpetrated by parents (80 percent) or other relatives (10 percent). Approximately half of the children were victims of neglect and 25 percent were victims of physical abuse. One quarter of abused children were younger than four years old. Cases were most often reported by professionals ...

Child Maltreatment 1996: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates

Availability:

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Year Published:

1998 - 100 pages

 

*       This report summarizes the data submitted by state child protective services agencies to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System for 1996. More than 2 million reports of child abuse or neglect were investigated by state agencies during 1996. Of those reports, almost 1 million cases were substantiated, translating to 15 of every 1,000 children in the United States. Neglect was found in slightly more than half of the substantiated cases, while 24 percent of victims were physically abused and 12 percent were sexually abused. More than 1,000 children died as a result of maltreatment during 1996. Data are ...

Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates

Availability:

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Year Published:

1999 - 144 pages

 

*       The 1997 report of the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System summarizes statistics submitted from the states about child protective service investigations, the characteristics of victims, service responses, child fatalities, and the characteristics of perpetrators. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. Screening of reports, sources of reports, worker responsibilities, investigations, rates of victimization, types of maltreatment, demographics of victims, prior service histories of victims, post-investigation services, removal from home, number of child fatalities, fatalities in foster care, relationship of abuser to victim, and demographics of abusers are presented in aggregate as well as by state. Responding ...

Child Maltreatment 1998: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates

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Year Published:

2000 - 160 pages

 

*       This report summarizes data submitted by the states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System in 1998. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The state reports covered the number of children receiving preventive services, the number of referrals to Child Protective Service agencies, the number of reports investigated and substantiated, types of abuse and neglect perpetrated, services provided for victims, characteristics of victims and perpetrators, and the number of child fatalities from abuse and neglect. In total, approximately 2.8 million children were referred to child protective services for suspected maltreatment. Two-thirds of these cases were ...

Child Maltreatment 1999

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane Association

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Year Published:

2001 - 114 pages

 

*       This report, in CD-ROM format, summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 1999. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; child protective services workforce; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; fatalities by prior contact with child protective services; and types of services provided. Nationwide, 60 percent of the 2,974,000 referrals received were investigated. ...

Child Maltreatment 2000

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane Association

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Year Published:

2002 - 128 pages

 

*       This report summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 2000. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; and types of services provided. Nationwide, 60 percent of the incidents reported to child abuse authorities were investigated. Slightly more than ...

Child Maltreatment 2001

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane Association

Availability:

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Year Published:

2003 - 142 pages

 

*       This report summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 2001. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; and types of services provided. Nationwide, more than two-thirds of referrals received were investigated. Fifty-nine percent of the investigated cases were ...

Child Maltreatment 2002

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane.

Availability:

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Year Published:

2004 - 166 pages

 

*       This report summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 2002. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; types of services provided; and additional research related to child maltreatment. Nationwide, approximately two-thirds of referrals received were accepted for investigation ... *        

Child Maltreatment 2003

Author(s):

United States. Children's Bureau., Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane.

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Year Published:

2005 - 170 pages

 

*       This report summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 2003. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; types of services provided; and additional research related to child maltreatment. Nationwide, approximately two-thirds of referrals received were accepted for investigation ...

Child Maltreatment 2004

Author(s):

United States. Children's Bureau., Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane.

Availability:

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Year Published:

2006 - 185 pages

 

*       This report summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 2004. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; types of services provided; and additional research related to child maltreatment. Nationwide, approximately two-thirds of referrals received were accepted for ...

Child Maltreatment 2004 : Summary of Key Findings

Series Title:

Numbers and Trends

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

Availability:

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Year Published:

2006 - 4 pages

 

*       This fact sheet summarizes Child Maltreatment 2004, a publication that provides child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS). Highlighted topics include reports of child abuse and neglect; victims of maltreatment; perpetrators; fatalities; and services. The maltreatment rate was 11.9 per 1,000 children in 2004, a drop of 1.5 from 2003. Over sixty percent of the children were neglected, 18 percent were physically abused, and 10 percent were sexually abused. The vast majority of children were maltreated by one parent, usually the mother. Approximately 1,500 child deaths were related to abuse or ...

Child Maltreatment 2005

Author(s):

United States. Children's Bureau., Walter R. McDonald & Associates.
Gaudiosi

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Year Published:

2007 - 184 pages

 

*       This report summarizes child abuse statistics submitted by states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) during 2005. See a list of all Child Maltreatment Reports. The data are presented in aggregate and by state, and trends are reported when available. Topics include sources of reports; time for response; victimization rates; types of maltreatment; age, race and gender of victims; age and gender of perpetrators; relationship of perpetrators to the victim; number of child fatalities; types of services provided; and additional research related to child maltreatment. During FFY 2005, an estimated 899,000 children in the 50 ...

Child Maltreatment 2005 : Summary of Key Findings

Series Title:

Numbers and Trends

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

Availability:

View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 152 KB)

Year Published:

2007 - 4 pages

 

*       This factsheet presents excerpts from Child Maltreatment 2005, a publication that provides child abuse statistics submitted by States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Highlighted topics include reports of child abuse and neglect, victims of maltreatment, types of abuse, perpetrators, fatalities, and services. During fiscal year 2005, an estimated 899,000 children were abused or neglected. Of these children, 62.8 percent were neglected, 16.6 percent were physically abused, 9.3 percent were sexually abused, and 7.1 percent suffered emotional maltreatment. The vast majority of children were maltreated by a parent. Approximately 1,460 child deaths were related to abuse or ...

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Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report. Safety, Permanency, Well-Being.

Author(s):

Walter R. McDonald and Associates, American Humane Association

Availability:

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Year Published:

2000 - 384 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this report reviews the states achievement of goals for reducing the recurrence of child abuse and neglect and time in foster care, and for increasing placement stability. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data were collected primarily from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System and the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System. Contextual information obtained from a sample of 30 states revealed that more than 485,000 children were maltreated in those states during 1997. More than 153,000 children entered foster care, 41 ...

Child Welfare Outcomes 1999: Annual Report

Author(s):

James Bell Associates

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Year Published:

2001 - 402 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this annual report analyzes the performance of state child welfare agencies on child welfare outcomes regarding: the recurrence of child abuse and neglect; permanency planning; placement stability; and the safety of children in foster care. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data for the summary were obtained from state reports provided to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 1998 and 1999. Nationwide, a median of 9.7 per 1,000 children had substantiated ...

Child Welfare Outcomes 2000: Annual Report

Author(s):

James Bell Associates

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Year Published:

2000 - 493 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this annual report analyzes the performance of state child welfare agencies on child welfare outcomes regarding the recurrence of child abuse and neglect, permanency planning, placement stability, and the safety of children in foster care. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data for the summary were obtained from state reports provided to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 1999 and 2000. Information for a qualitative analysis also was extracted from Child ...

Child Welfare Outcomes 2001: Annual Report

Author(s):

Children's Bureau

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Year Published:

2004 - 503 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this annual report analyzes the performance of state child welfare agencies on seven child welfare outcomes including the recurrence of child abuse and neglect, permanency planning, placement stability, and the safety of children in foster care. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data were obtained from state reports provided to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 2001. Information for a qualitative analysis also was extracted from Child and Family Service Review ...

Child Welfare Outcomes 2001: Annual Report [CD-ROM]

Author(s):

Children's Bureau

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Year Published:

2004 - 15 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this annual report analyzes the performance of state child welfare agencies on seven child welfare outcomes including the recurrence of child abuse and neglect, permanency planning, placement stability, and the safety of children in foster care. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data were obtained from state reports provided to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 2001. Information for a qualitative analysis also was extracted from Child and Family Service Review ...

*        Child Welfare Outcomes 2002 : Annual Report

Author(s):

Children's Bureau.

Availability:

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Year Published:

2005 - 516 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this annual report analyzes the performance of state child welfare agencies on seven child welfare outcomes including the recurrence of child abuse and neglect, permanency planning, placement stability, and the safety of children in foster care. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data were obtained from state reports provided to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting Systems (AFCARS) and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 2002. Information for a qualitative analysis also was extracted from Child and Family Service Review ...

*        Child Welfare Outcomes 2002 : Executive Summary

Author(s):

Children's Bureau.

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Year Published:

2005 - 13 pages

 

*       This annual report to Congress is the fifth in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Department. The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997). This executive summary highlights the information pertaining to State performance on the seven national child welfare outcomes.

Child Welfare Outcomes 2003 : Annual Report

Author(s):

Children's Bureau.

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Year Published:

2006 - 508 pages

 

*       Mandated by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, this annual report analyzes the performance of state child welfare agencies on seven child welfare outcomes including the recurrence of child abuse and neglect, permanency planning, placement stability, and the safety of children in foster care. See a list of all Child Welfare Outcomes Reports. Data were obtained from state reports provided to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting Systems (AFCARS) and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) in 2003. Information for a qualitative analysis also was extracted from Child and Family Service Review ...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Executive Summary of the Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect

Author(s):

Sedlak, Broadhurst

Availability:

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Year Published:

1996 - 24 pages

 

*       This report presents a synopsis of the background and objectives of the Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3), its design and methods, and its key findings. The NIS-3 findings are based on a nationally representative sample of over 5,600 professionals in 42 counties. NIS-3 used the harm and endangered standards to provide insights into the incidence and distribution of child maltreatment and into changes in incidence since the previous study. Results indicate that the incidence of child abuse has increased since the last incidence study was conducted in 1986, the total number of abused and neglected ...

*        Foster Care

Series Title:

Numbers and Trends

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

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Year Published:

2005 - 8 pages

 

*       This factsheet provides the most recent national statistical estimates for children in foster care from fiscal year (FY) 2003 and also provides earlier data from FY 19982 to allow for some estimate of trends over time. Data were obtained from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS). AFCARS collects case-level information on all children in foster care for whom State child welfare agencies have responsibility for placement, care, or supervision and on children who are adopted under the auspices of the State's public child welfare agency.

Funding Resources for Adoption Services

Series Title:

Related Organizations Lists

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

Availability:

View Publication

Year Published:

2008 - 0 pages

 

*       This resource listing provides information about federal and private agencies that offer financial assistance and information for adoption services. Each entry includes contact information and a description of the types of support it provides.

*        Funding Resources for Improving Child Abuse and Neglect and Child Welfare Programs and Practice

Series Title:

Related Organizations Lists

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

Availability:

View Publication

Year Published:

2008 - 0 pages

 

*       This publication lists Federal and private organizations that provide information on funding resources to improve programs and practice in child abuse and neglect and child welfare. Each entry includes contact information and a brief description of the organization.

Adoption Statistics from the Agency

How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001?

Series Title:

Numbers and Trends

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

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Year Published:

2004 - 31 pages

 

*       The purpose of this report is to estimate the number of children adopted in each of the States for 2000 and 2001 and to use these numbers to estimate the composition and trends of all adoptions in the United States. Key findings, presented in How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001?-Highlights (http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/s_adoptedhighlights.cfm), include: (1) In 2000 and 2001, about 127,000 children were adopted annually in the United States; (2) Public agency and intercountry adoptions account for more than half of alladoptions; (3) Adoptions through publicly funded child welfare agencies accounted for two-fifths of all adoptions; (4) Intercountry adoptions ...

How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? -- Highlights

Series Title:

Numbers and Trends

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

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Year Published:

2004 - 2 pages

 

*       This factsheet presents highlights from the National Adoption Information Clearinghouse's full report on How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? The purpose of this report is to estimate the number of children adopted in each of the States for 2000 and 2001 and to use these numbers to estimate the composition and trends of all adoptions in the United States. Key findings are summarized. 2 references.

National Evaluation of Family Support Programs Volume A: The Meta-Analysis

Author(s):

Layzer, Goodson, Bernstein, Price

Availability:

Download Publication (PDF - 403 KB)

Year Published:

2001 - 99 pages

 

*       As part of the national evaluation of family support programs mandated by the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1993, the Administration on Children, Youth and Families contracted with Abt Associates Inc. to conduct a meta-analysis of existing research about the effectiveness of different types of programs and the impact of services on families with a variety of needs and characteristics. The meta-analysis provides a statistical summary of 665 studies of 260 programs. In general, the findings revealed that family support services resulted in slight improvements in some outcomes. However, existing research has not identified one model that is effective for all ...

*        National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: A Summary Report

Author(s):

Fluke, Harper, Parry, Sedlak, et al.

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Year Published:

2003 - 32 pages

 

*       This paper summarizes key findings on practice and policy, as well as changes being undertaken, which were identified during the 2-year National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts. Topics include background, screening and triage, investigation, collaboration with law enforcement, alternatives to investigation, collaboration in providing services, and looking toward the future. These findings were discussed at a symposium of persons knowledgeable about child protective services policies and practices and their observations are included in this paper. (Author abstract modified)

*        National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: Findings on Local CPS Practices

Author(s):

Children's Bureau (DHHS)

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2003 - 161 pages

 

*       The Children's Bureau and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services surveyed local child protective service agencies in 300 counties during 2002 about their structure and organization of screening and intake, investigation, and alternative response functions. Cooperation with other agencies and reform initiatives also were addressed. This report reviews the findings of the research and analyzes differences between agency structures. The majority of child protective service agencies received referrals from state or local hotlines, schools, and individuals. However, few agencies automatically accepted referrals from identified groups of reporters. ... *        

National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: Review of State CPS Policy

Author(s):

Fluke, Harper, Parry, Yuan

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2003 - 126 pages

 

*       State child protective service policy manuals were reviewed for this report about current administration, screening, investigation, and child protection response strategies. Similarities and differences between states are noted, and innovative activities are highlighted. Policies varied regarding the definition of mandated reporters, criteria for accepting referrals, notifications of screening decisions, investigation disposition categories, level of evidence required for substantiation, and timeframes for investigation. Twenty states indicated that they had an alternative response system available for families with low risk of harm. Reasons for the creation of the alternative system ranged from child safety to service flexibility. Overall, the state policies were ...

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW): Local Child Welfare Agency Survey. Report.

Author(s):

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Research Group

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Year Published:

2001 - 108 pages

 

*       This report summarizes data collected during the first wave of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being about the structure of child welfare agencies and the services provided to families. Child welfare administrators from 92 localities were interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire about staff resources, foster care resources, service activities, service delivery mechanisms, and service dynamics. The study found that two-thirds of the participating child welfare agencies were contained within a larger agency and many collaborated with other programs, such as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, substance abuse treatment, mental health treatment, and juvenile justice. More than ...

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being: State Child Welfare Agency Survey. Report.

Author(s):

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Research Group

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Year Published:

2001 - 74 pages

 

*       Forty-six state child welfare administrators were interviewed by telephone from March 2000 to August 2000 for the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being sponsored by the Children's Bureau. The survey requested information about child welfare policies and practices and the impact of recent Federal legislation, including the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA), Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Multiethnic Placement Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. The majority of administrators indicated that the ASFA has influenced changes in practices regarding child safety, permanency, collaboration with the courts, and data collection. One-third of the administrators noted discrepancies ...

Persons Seeking to Adopt

Series Title:

Numbers and Trends

Author(s):

Child Welfare Information Gateway

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Year Published:

2005 - 4 pages

 

*       Most Americans favor adoption, and many have at some point considered adoption. However, relatively few have taken concrete steps toward adopting a child, and fewer still have actually adopted a child. This factsheet examines some of the more recent statistics and trends regarding American adults who seek to adopt an infant or child.

A Report to Congress on Interjurisdictional Adoption of Children in Foster Care.

Author(s):

Children's Bureau

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Year Published:

2006 - 61 pages

 

*       In response to a legislative requirement under the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services conducted a survey of all States and territories to identify promising practices and possible strategies to overcome barriers to interjurisdictional placements. The survey was the first comprehensive compilation of current, promising strategies, and supports required to improve the interjurisdictional placement process for children in the child welfare system. This report provides background information on children in foster care, especially those for whom interjurisdictional adoptive placements are viable options, and describes key steps in the process to achieve permanent ...

Report to Congress: National Estimates on the Number of Boarder Babies, the Cost of Their Care, and the Number of Abandoned Infants.

Author(s):

James Bell Associates

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Year Published:

1993 - 42 pages

 

*       This report to Congress estimates the number of infants abandoned in hospitals during 1991 and the costs to Federal, State, and local governments for caring for these children. Boarder babies are those who stayed in the hospital longer than medically necessary but who may eventually be released to the care of biological parents. The study estimated the national number of boarder babies annually to be 9,700. Average cost of care is $12,892 for 22 days, the average length of stay after medical discharge. In 1991, there were an estimated 12,000 abandoned infants who would probably not be released to their ...

Re-reporting and Recurrence of Child Maltreatment : Findings from NCANDS

Author(s):

United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation., Walter R. McDonald and Associates.
Fluke, Shusterman, Hollinshead, Yuan

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Year Published:

2005 - 33 pages

 

*       Most children who are subjects of a report of maltreatment to the State or local child protective services (CPS) agency are involved just once with CPS during their lives. Other children are referred more than once and their referrals result in repeated investigations or assessments (rereporting). Some of these children are found to have been revictimized (recurrence). This paper focuses on rereporting and recurrence, and on gaining a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding these children with repeated involvement with CPS. Most previous studies of subvsequent reports alleging maltreatment of the same child or of revictimization have included only small ...

Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect

Author(s):

Sedlak, Broadhurst

Availability:

Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:

1996 - 252 pages

 

*       The Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect Reports data from a representative sample of more than 5,600 professionals from 42 counties in the United States. The analysis examined the number of children harmed by abuse and neglect, child characteristics, family characteristics, perpetrator characteristics, report sources and CPS investigation. Significant increases were found in the number of abused and neglected children who were harmed, and at risk of harm, since the previous study in 1986. Girls were more at risk for sexual abuse, while boys experienced higher rates of emotional abuse and serious injury. At-risk families included single ...

SACWIS

Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics
... AFCARS) Assessment Reviews, and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS) Assessment Reviews. Current Trends in Child Abuse Prevention and Fatalities: The 2000 Fifty State ...

Child Welfare/Foster Care Statistics
... and Neglect Data Systems (NCANDS), and Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS). National Data Analysis System Child Welfare League of America Searchable online database that ...

Child Welfare/Foster Care Statistics
... in the child welfare system, trends in foster care caseloads, and well-being outcomes. Learn about sources of data and statistics on children and families in the child welfare system and ...

Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics
... including information about how many children die each year from maltreatment, which groups of children are most vulnerable, how the deaths occur, and what is known about the perpetrators. It also

Statistics
... AFCARS) Assessment Reviews, and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS) Assessment Reviews. Updated on December 7, 2007

Adoption Opportunities Grants Announced
... s Bureau announced $8.4 million in Adoption Opportunities Grants for FY 2002, including the record award of $4,439,000 to the Adoption Exchange Association to administer the Collaboration to ...


FOSTER CARE FACTS
http://www.clcla. org/facts_ overview. htm 

FEDERAL FOSTER CARE FINANCING:
> How and Why the Current Funding Structure Fails to> Meet the Needs of the> Child Welfare Field
>
> U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
> <
http://www.hhs. gov/>
> Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and
> Evaluation
> <
http://aspe. hhs.gov/>
>
> Updated August 2005(1)
> <
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#1>
>
> This Issue Brief provides an overview of the title  IV-E federal foster care program's funding structure and documents several key weaknesses.
>
> This Issue Brief is available on the Internet at:
>
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/
>
> Printer Friendly (PDF) Version
> <
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/ib.pdf>
>
> How to Obtain a Printed Copy
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#hardcopy>
>
> Contents
>
> * Executive Summary
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Executive>
> * Introduction
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Introduction>
> * Background and History of Title IV-E Foster
> Care
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Background>
> * Documenting Eligibility and Claiming Foster
> Care Funds is
> Burdensome
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Documenting>
> * Differing Claiming Practices Result in Wide
> Variations in Funding
> Among States
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Differing>
> * The Current Funding Structure Has Not Resulted
> in High Quality
> Services
> <
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#The>
> * States' Title IV-E Claiming Bears Little
> Relationship to Service
> Quality or Outcomes
> <
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#States>
> * The Current Funding Structure is Inflexible,
> Emphasizing Foster
> Care
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#current>
> * The Financing Structure Has Not Kept Pace with
> a Changing Child
> Welfare Field
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#financing>
> * Proposed Child Welfare Program Option
> Described
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Proposed>
> * Benefits of the Proposed Child Welfare Program
> Option
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Benefits>
> * References
>
<
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#References>
> * Note on Data Sources:
> <
http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/ 05/fc-financing- ib/#Note>
>


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                                                                                                               

From  Child Information Gateway’s Children’s Bureau:

New! On the Children's Bureau Site

The Children's Bureau website carries information on child welfare programs, funding, monitoring, training and technical assistance, laws, statistics, research, Federal reporting, and much more. The "New on Site" section includes grant announcements, policy announcements, agency information, and recently released publications.

Recent additions to the site include:

Visit the Children's Bureau website often to see what's new!

www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/new_site.htm

 

From the Children’s Bureau:

  http://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/articles.cfm?issue_id=2001-11&article_id=353

HHS Awards Adoption Bonuses

In September, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awarded 35 States and the District of Columbia approximately $11 million in bonuses for increasing adoptions of children from the foster care system.

The bonuses are awarded as required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997. States that exceed the number of children adopted compared to the previous year receive a bonus, consisting of $4,000 for each child adopted and $6,000 for each child with special needs adopted.

Since ASFA was passed, adoption of foster care children has continued to increase every year, as demonstrated by the following statistics:

"These awards demonstrate that States have made great progress in reducing the number of children waiting to become part of a permanent family," said Wade Horn, HHS Assistant Secretary for Children and Families. "I challenge public agencies to keep building on this record of success."

The States that demonstrated the largest increases were Delaware with an increase of 186 percent and Maine with an increase of 100 percent. The largest monetary award (more than $4 million) went to California, which completed 8,221 adoptions, a 31 percent increase from the previous fiscal year.

For a complete list of States and their bonuses, visit: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/news/press/2001/adoption.html

 

Chapter 3
Victims
Child Maltreatment 2004

Child protective services (CPS) agencies respond to the needs of children who are alleged to have been maltreated and ensure that they remain safe. Based on a rate of 47.8 per 1,000 children, an estimated 3,503,000 children received an investigation by CPS agencies in 2004.1 Based on a victim rate of 11.9 per 1,000 children, an estimated 872,000 children were found to be victims. A child was counted each time he or she was A child was counted each time he or she was the subject of a report. The count of child victims is based on the number of investigations that found the child to be a victim of one of more types of maltreatment. The count of victims is, therefore, a report-based count and is a "duplicated count."2 The victimization rates by individual State are illustrated in figure 3-1.

The rate of all children who received an investigation or assessment increased from 36.1 per 1,000 children in 1990 to 47.8 per 1,000 children in 2004, which is a 32.4 percent increase (figure 3-2). The rate of victimization decreased from 13.4 per 1,000 children in 1990 to 11.9 per 1,000 children in 2004, which is an 11.2 percent decrease.3 The highest rate of victimization occurred during 1993, when the rate was 15.3. There has been a 51.3 percent increase in the number of children who received an investigation from 1990 to 2004; there has been 1.4 percent increase in the number of child victims.

First-Time Victims

Based on data from 39 States, nearly three-quarters of the victims (74.3%) had no history of prior victimization.4 Information regarding first-time victims is a Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) measure. The Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention Program reports this PART measure to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) each year as an average of all States. Individual State data are not reported to OMB.

Types of Maltreatment

During 2004, 62.4 percent of victims experienced neglect, 17.5 percent were physically abused, 9.7 percent were sexually abused, 7.0 percent were psychologically maltreated, and 2.1 percent were medically neglected.5 In addition, 14.5 percent of victims experienced such "other" types of maltreatment as "abandonment," "threats of harm to the child," or "congenital drug addiction." States may code any condition that does not fall into one of the main categories—physical abuse, neglect, medical neglect, sexual abuse, and psychological or emotional maltreatment—as "other." These maltreatment type percentages total more than 100 percent because children who were victims of more than one type of maltreatment were counted for each maltreatment.

Figure 3-3 illustrates that victimization rates by type of maltreatment have fluctuated only slightly during the last 5 years.6

Victims of specific types of maltreatment were analyzed in terms of what the report sources were. Of victims of physical abuse, 24.1 percent were reported by educational personnel, 21.8 percent were reported by law enforcement, and 11.0 percent were reported by medical personnel.7 Overall, 72.7 percent were reported by professionals and 27.3 percent were reported by nonprofessionals. The patterns of reporting of neglect and sexual abuse victims were similar—law enforcement accounted for the largest percentage of neglect victims (26.2%) and the largest percent of sexual abuse victims (26.5%); 60.8 percent of reporters of neglect were professionals and 68.9 percent of reporters of sexual abuse were professionals. The patterns of reporting medical neglect were different. Nearly one-third of all reports of medical neglect victims were made by medical personnel; three-quarters (73.1%) were made by professionals compared with 26.9 percent by nonprofessionals.

Sex and Age of Victims

For 2004, 48.3 percent of child victims were boys, and 51.7 percent of the victims were girls.8 The youngest children had the highest rate of victimization. The rate of child victimization of the age group of birth to 3 years was 16.1 per 1,000 children of the same age group. The victimization rate of children in the age group of 4-7 years was 13.4 per 1,000 children in the same age group.9 Overall, the rate of victimization was inversely related to the age of the child (figure 3-4).

The youngest children accounted for the largest percentage of victims. Children younger than 1 year accounted for 10.3 percent of victims.10

Nearly three-quarters of child victims (72.9%) ages birth to 3 years were neglected compared with 52.4 percent of victims ages 16 years and older. For victims in the age group of 12-15 years, 22.8 percent were physically abused and 16.5 percent were sexually abused, compared with 16.8 percent and 9.1 percent, respectively, for victims in the age group of 4-7 years old.11

Race and Ethnicity of Victims

African-American children, Pacific Islander children, and American Indian or Alaska Native children had the highest rates of victimization at 19.9, 17.6, and 15.5 per 1,000 children of the same race or ethnicity, respectively (figure 3-5). White children and Hispanic children had rates of approximately 10.7 and 10.4 per 1,000 children of the same race or ethnicity, respectively. Asian children had the lowest rate of 2.9 per 1,000 children of the same race or ethnicity.12

One-half of all victims were White (53.8%); one-quarter (25.2%) were African-American; and 17.0 percent were Hispanic. For most racial categories, the largest percentage of victims suffered from neglect.13

Living Arrangement of Victims

Data are incomplete on the living arrangement of victims. Only one-half of the States were able to report on living arrangement and among these States, nearly one-half of the victims (44.2%) had unknown or missing data on living arrangement. Approximately 10 percent of victims (10.3%) were reported as living with two married biological parents or with a parent and stepparent. Less than 5 percent (4.2%) were reported as living with unmarried parents or a parent and a cohabitating parent; 14.2 percent were reported as living with both parents of unknown marital status. It is hoped that reporting will improve in the coming years.14

Reported Disability of Victims

Child victims who were reported with disabilities accounted for 7.3 percent of all victims in the 36 States that reported these data. Children with the following risk factors were considered as having a disability: mental retardation, emotional disturbance, visual impairment, learning disability, physical disability, behavioral problems, or another medical problem. In general, children with such conditions are undercounted, as not every child receives a clinical diagnostic assessment by CPS.15 When the subpopulation of medical neglect victims ages birth to 5 years was examined, it was found that 13.5 percent of these children were reported as having disabilities.16

Factors Influencing the Determination that a Child is a Victim of Maltreatment

The determination as to whether or not a child is considered a victim of maltreatment is made during a CPS investigation. A multivariate analysis was conducted to examine what factors and characteristics of children influence this determination. This analysis was possible because the case-level data file format incorporates child characteristics—such as maltreatment type—for victims and nonvictims.

The basic hypothesis explored in this analysis was that some child characteristics or circumstances place children at a greater risk for being identified as victims during the investigation process. The odds ratio analyses indicate the likelihood of allegations of maltreatment being confirmed by the CPS agency. Highlights of the findings are listed below.17

Recurrence

For many children who experience repeat maltreatment, the efforts of the CPS system have not been successful in preventing subsequent victimization. Through the Child and Family Services Reviews (CFSR), the Children's Bureau established the national standard for recurrence as:

"A State meets the national standard for this indicator if, of all children who were victims of substantiated or indicated child abuse and/or neglect during the first 6 months of the period under review, 6.1% or fewer children had another substantiated or indicated report within 6 months."19

Analysis of CFSR data indicates that States have improved in meeting this standard. The percentage of reporting States in compliance has increased from 29.4 percent for 2000 to 42.2 percent for 2004, an improvement of 43.6 percent.20

Twenty-five States provided sufficient data to support an analysis of the factors that influence the likelihood of recurrence. In this analysis, recurrence was defined as a second substantiated or indicated maltreatment occurring within a 6-month period (183 days). The major results of the analysis are summarized below.21

Perpetrators of Maltreatment

Nearly 84 percent (83.4%) of victims were abused by a parent acting alone or with another person. Approximately two-fifths (38.8%) of child victims were maltreated by their mothers acting alone; another 18.3 percent were maltreated by their fathers acting alone; 18.3 percent were abused by both parents.22 Victims abused by such nonparental perpetrators as an unmarried partner of parent, legal guaradian, or foster parent accounted for 10.1 percent of the total (figure 3-6).

Maltreatment in Foster Care

Through the CFSR, the Children's Bureau established a national standard for the incidence of child abuse or neglect in foster care as:

"A State meets the national standard for this indicator if, of all children in foster care in the State during the period under review, the percentage of children who were the subject of substantiated or indicated maltreatment by a foster parent or facility staff is 0.57% or less."23

Analysis of NCANDS CFSR data indicates that States have improved in meeting this standard. The percentage of States in compliance has increased from 57.1 percent for 2000 to 84.2 percent for 2004.24 During 2004, 13 States had difficulty with providing the data needed to compute this measure using the Child File.

Tables and Notes

The following pages contain the tables referenced in Chapter 3. Unless otherwise explained, a blank indicates that the State did not submit usable data. Specific information about State submissions can be found in appendix D. Additional information regarding methodologies that were used to create the tables is provided below.

Table 3-1

Table 3-2

Table 3-3

Table 3-4

Table 3-5

Table 3-6

Table 3-8

Table 3-11

Table 3-12

Table 3-13

Table 3-14

Table 3-15

Table 3-17

Table 3-18

Table 3-19

Table 3-20

Table 3-21

Chapter Three: Tables

Notes

1 Supporting data are provided in table 3-1, which is located at the end of this chapter. The child disposition rate was computed by dividing the total count of children who were the subjects of an investigation (3,424,354) by the child population for the 49 States that reported these data (71,694,961) and multiplying by 1,000. A national estimate of 3,503,000 children who were the subjects of an investigation was calculated by multiplying the child disposition rate (47.8) by the national child population (73,277,998) and dividing by 1,000. The total was rounded to the nearest 1,000. Back
2 See
table 3-2. Back
3 See
table 3-3. Back
4 See
table 3-4. This is a Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) measure. Back
5 See
table 3-5. Back
6 See
table 3-6. Back
7 See
table 3-7. Back
8 See
table 3-8. Back
9 See
table 3-9. Back
10 See
table 3-10. Back
11 See
table 3-11. Children may have been the victims of more than one type of maltreatment. Back
12 See
table 3-12. Back
13 See
table 3-13. Back
14 See
table 3-14. Back
15 See
table 3-15. Back
16 See
table 3-16. Back
17 The bulleted findings identify those factors that were more than 1.50 or less than 0.50. See
table 3-17. Back
18 This finding may be related to providing assessments that determine disability during or after the investigation.
Back
19U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. National Standards for the Child and Family Service Reviews. Information Memorandum, ACYF-CBIM-00-11. December 28, 2000.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. Updated National Standards for the Child and Family Service Reviews and Guidance on Program Improvement Plans. Information Memorandum, ACYF-CB-IM-01-07. August 16, 2003.
Back
20 See
table 3-18. Back
21 The bulleted findings identify those factors that were more than 1.50 or less than 0.50. See
table 3-19. Back
22 See
table 3-20. Back
23 See footnote 19.
Back
24 See
table 3-21. Back

 

Table of Contents
Child Maltreatment 2004

Child Maltreatment 2004

Inside Cover

Letter from the Associate Commissioner

Acknowledgements

Summary

Summary: Figures

Chapter 1:     Introduction

Background of NCANDS
Annual Data Collection Process
Structure of the Report
Table Notes
Chapter One: Table

Chapter 2:     Reports

Screening of Referrals
Report Sources
Response Time from Report to Investigation or Assessment
Investigated Reports
Report by Disposition
CPS Workforce and Workload
Table Notes
Chapter Two: Figures and Tables

Chapter 3:     Victims

First-Time Victims
Sex and Age of Victims
Race and Ethnicity of Victims
Living Arrangement of Victims
Reported Disability of Victims
Recurrence
Perpetrators of Maltreatment
Maltreatment in Foster Care
Table Notes
Chapter Three: Figures and Tables

Chapter 4:     Fatalities

Number of Child Fatalities
Age and Sex of Fatalities
Race and Ethnicity of Fatalities
Perpetrator Relationships of Fatalities
Maltreatment Types of Fatalities
Prior CPS Contact of Fatality Victims
Table Notes
Chapter Four: Figures and Tables

Chapter 5:     Perpetrators

Characteristics of Perpetrators
Table Notes
Chapter Five: Figures and Tables

Chapter 6:     Services

Preventive Services
Postinvestigation Services
Factors Influencing the Receipt of Services
Receipt of Postinvestigation Services
Receipt of In-Home Services
Receipt of Foster Care Services
Table Notes
Chapter Six: Tables

Chapter 7:     Additional Research Related to Child Maltreatment

Reports on Key Indicators, Outcomes, and National Statistics
Studies of the Characteristics of Children in the Child Welfare System
Capacity-Building Initiatives
Suggestions for Future Research

Appendix A:     Required CAPTA Data Items

Appendix A: Tables and Figures

Appendix B:     Glossary

Appendix C:     Data Submissions and Data Elements

Appendix C: Tables and Figures

Appendix D:     State Commentary

Appendix E:     Reader Survey

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 
The National Data Analysis System (NDAS)

"The National Data Analysis System (NDAS) is a part of CWLA's National Center for Research, Data, and Technology. NDAS puts child welfare data and statistics at the fingertips of Internet users and promotes discussion around state and federal data issues in an effort to promote effective integration of research, policy, and practice." http://ndas.cwla.org/ 

Misuse of Statistics
(Orig. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics#Misuse )

There is a general perception that statistical knowledge is all-too-frequently intentionally misused by finding ways to interpret only the data that are favorable to the presenter. A famous saying attributed to Benjamin Disraeli is, "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics". Harvard President Lawrence Lowell wrote in 1909 that statistics, "...like veal pies, are good if you know the person that made them, and are sure of the ingredients."

If various studies appear to contradict one another, then the public may come to distrust such studies. For example, one study may suggest that a given diet or activity raises blood pressure, while another may suggest that it lowers blood pressure. The discrepancy can arise from subtle variations in experimental design, such as differences in the patient groups or research protocols, which are not easily understood by the non-expert. (Media reports usually omit this vital contextual information entirely, because of its complexity.)

By choosing (or rejecting, or modifying) a certain sample, results can be manipulated. Such manipulations need not be malicious or devious; they can arise from unintentional biases of the researcher. The graphs used to summarize data can also be misleading.

Deeper criticisms come from the fact that the hypothesis testing approach, widely used and in many cases required by law or regulation, forces one hypothesis (the null hypothesis) to be "favored," and can also seem to exaggerate the importance of minor differences in large studies. A difference that is highly statistically significant can still be of no practical significance. (See criticism of hypothesis testing and controversy over the null hypothesis.)

One response is by giving a greater emphasis on the p-value than simply reporting whether a hypothesis is rejected at the given level of significance. The p-value, however, does not indicate the size of the effect. Another increasingly common approach is to report confidence intervals. Although these are produced from the same calculations as those of hypothesis tests or p-values, they describe both the size of the effect and the uncertainty surrounding it.

 

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